Examples of two Processes we use in our application are Process Builder and Workflow Rules. Both processes are configured in the Salesforce Setup.
The Process Builder is a point and click designer that lets you automate multiple rules (sets of criteria and actions) in a single process. When a new or updated record meets your specified criteria, the process kicks off and performs the actions you configured. Workflow rules operate as individual if/then processes that can automate a subset of the actions available in Process Builder.
Here you can find a Process Automation Cheatsheet.