Examples of two Processes we use in our application are Process Builder and Workflow Rules. Both processes are configured in the Salesforce Setup.
The Process Builder is a point and click designer that lets you automate multiple rules (sets of criteria and actions) in a single process. When a new or updated record meets your specified criteria, the process kicks off and performs the actions you configured. Workflow rules operate as individual if/then processes that can automate a subset of the actions available in Process Builder.
Learn more about the Process Builder via these trailheads provided by Salesforce and read this for more information.
For more information about Workflow Rules click here and here.
Here you can find a Process Automation Cheatsheet.